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“Figures Don’t Lie, but Liars Do Figure” this is the famous quote of statistics.We will prove it with the help of two real life example from history
1)I take First example from the reference of The National Library of New Zealand.“Figures cant Lie” ABOUT A DIVIDEND PLEASANT SURPRISE FOR INVESTORS;CHRISTCHURCH, Jan. 31 (with reference of newspaper correspondent)
A good deal of curiosity was expressed, when Mr.J.Mc Dougall, who has charge of the totalisator at the trottingmeetings in Canterbury, invited the investors on piecework, who won the sportsman’s handicap at the NewZealand Metropolitan. Trotting Club’s meeting on Saturday, paying a substantial dividend, to meet him at hisoffice. They were a mere handful, but they came in from the highways and hedges and at his request signedtheir names to a statement that they had backedthe horse & indicated the windows at which their tickets had been purchased. The mystery was not fathomed for them at the moment and the popular opinion was that thetotalisator had paid out too much money & was anxious to come into own again.The totalisator is of course, generally supposed to be the mechanical embodiment of that well-loved sup- position that “figures cannot lie’’; but it lied very badly on that Saturday says news, through an accident thatwas quite unforeseeable and that cannot in any wayreflect upon its integrity. The blocks of totalisator ticketsare numbered from the figure “0’’ in sequence, with the result that when the totalisator clerk has sold 0,1,2,3 &4, his block shows that 5, which is the next ticket, is the number of tickets that has been disposed of.Unfortunately, in the case of piecework, the block of tickets had come from the printer in a faulty condition.The numbers from 5 to 14 inclusive were missing and when the club officials came to check the figures the block showed15 as its top number, indicating that 15 tickets had been sold instead of 5. The dividend wasworked out on this basis, and it was only when the totalisator proprietors discovered that their cash was£237over that the mistake was discovered. Fortunately the investors were singularly few, and could be easilyidentified by the clerks who had paid out the abort dividend and Mr. Mc Dougall has now accounted for thewhole investors, who are to be paid the additional money tomorrow, after signing the necessary declarations.The mistake was first traced by the fact that the holder of the block of tickets short in his cash and in accordancewith rules of the totalisator had to pay in£5 from his own pocket to make his cash balance. It is intended infuture to have the blocks more systematically checked, in order that there may be no repetition of nay incidentthat was quite unforeseen and that was not blamable to the totalisator officials. The dividend, which was verysubstantial as it originally stood, has now beenincreased by over 50 per cent.
2)I took the 2
example from newspaper “The New York Times ’’ published on 9
March 1988 astitled“ A FEW STATISTICS. FIGURES< WHICH CANNOT LIE, PRESENT SOMEASTONISHING RESULTS.” From Christen Advocate.
A recent speaker says that theNegroesin this country have multiplied eight times in a century. As they have7,000,000 now, in 1980 they will amount to 192,000,000. if they maintain the same relative rate of increase theywill. The whites in 10years by birth and immigrationhave increased 30 percent. At this rate there will be800,000,000 whites and over 200,000,000negroes-in all 1,000,000,000-in the United States in 1988. Who believes either of these statements? By that method one can prove that the Methodist Episcopal Church willsoon have more communicants that the world will contain people. Last year it gained 5 percent net.This ratewillsdouble its membership every 14 years. Hence, in 1902 it will have 4,000,000; in 1916, 8,000,000;in 1930,16,000,000;in 1944, 32,000,000;in 1958, 64,000,000;in 1972, 128,000,000 and so doubling every 14 years, inthe year 2084, less than 200 years from the present date, there will be 32,768,000,000 of members of theMethodist Episcopal church in the United Sates alone. Toll on, thenbrethren, Do not let the fact that, accordingto the figures of the speaker quoted above, there will be only 6,400,000,000 negroes and 13,200,000,000whites-in all 19,600,000,000-of people in the united States at that time disturb you. Who cares for a littledeficit of 3,168,000,000? Great is Statistics! Of Course, other denominations are deluding themselves. Theythink they are increasing; but as we are going to include the whole population, and several thousand millionsmore, they must cease to exist! The only trouble is that if some of them continue to grow as at present, themultiplication table will wipe us out in the same way.From above example in favour of the initial statement we proved that ’’figures cannot lie’’.
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was defeated in a landslide by DemocratFranklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York. The election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, which been dominated by Republicans.
Despite poor economic conditions, Hoover faced little opposition at the 1932 Republican National Convention. Roosevelt was widely considered the front-runner at the start of the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but was not able to clinch the nomination until the fourth ballot of the convention. The Democratic convention chose a leading Southern Democrat, Speaker of the HouseJohn Nance Garner of Texas, as the party's vice presidential nominee. Roosevelt united the party around him, campaigning on the Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election of the Hoover administration. He promised recovery with a "New Deal" for the American people.
Roosevelt won by a landslide in both the electoral and popular vote, carrying every state outside of the Northeast and receiving the highest percentage of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee up to that time. Hoover had won over 57% of the popular vote in the 1928 Thematic Essay On Belief Systems And Personality election, but saw his "Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election" of the Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election vote decline to 39.7%. Socialist Party nominee Norman Thomas won 2.2% of the popular vote. Subsequent landslides in the 1934 mid-term elections and the 1936 presidential election confirmed the commencement of the Fifth Party System, which would be dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition.
Republican Party nomination
Main article: 1932 Republican National Convention
As the year 1932 began, the Republican Party believed Hoover's protectionism and aggressive fiscal policies would solve the depression. Whether they were successful or not, President Herbert Hoover controlled the party and had little trouble securing a re-nomination. Little-known former United States Senator Joseph I. France ran against Hoover in the primaries, but Hoover was often unopposed. France's primary wins were tempered by his defeat to Hoover in his home state of Maryland and the fact that few delegates to the national convention were chosen in the primaries.
Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention, which met in Chicago between June 14 and 16, ran a tight ship, not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation. He was nominated on the first ballot with 98% of the delegate vote.
The tally was spectacularly lopsided:
Both rural Republicans and hard-money Republicans (the latter hoping to nominate Ghazal Mimi Khalvati Essay Outline President Calvin Coolidge) balked at the floor managers and voted against the renomination of Vice-President Charles Curtis, who won with just 55% of the delegate votes.
Democratic Party nomination
Main article: 1932 Democratic National Convention
The leading candidate for the Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election presidential nomination in 1932 was New York Governor Tasc Scholarship Essays D. Roosevelt. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner and former New York Governor Al Smith were trailing him. Before the 1932 Democratic National Convention met in Chicago between June 27 and July 2, Roosevelt was believed to have more delegate votes than all of his opponents combined. However, due to the "two-thirds" nominating rule then used by the Democrats, his opponents hoped that he would be unable to obtain the two-thirds majority necessary to win, and that they could gain votes on later ballots or coalesce behind a dark horse candidate.:3–4
On the first three ballots Roosevelt had well over a majority of the delegate vote, but still lacked the two-thirds majority. Before the fourth ballot, his managers James Farley and Louis McHenry Howe struck a deal with House Speaker John Nance Garner: Garner would drop out of the race and support Roosevelt, and in return Roosevelt would agree to name Garner as his running mate. With this agreement, Roosevelt won the two-thirds majority and with it the presidential nomination.
After making an airplane trip to the Democratic convention, Roosevelt accepted the in person. In his speech, he stated, "ours must be a party of liberal thought, of planned action, of enlightened international outlook, and of the greatest good to the greatest number of our citizens." Roosevelt's trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. Large crowds greeted Roosevelt as he traveled around the nation; his campaign song "Happy Days Are Here Again" became Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election of the most popular in American political history:244 – and, indeed, the unofficial anthem of the Democratic Party.
The Democrats were united as they had not been Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election 1928, and probably the most united the party had been in the entire Fourth Party System. Roosevelt's Protestant background nullified the anti-Catholic attacks Smith faced in 1928, and The Depression seemed to be of greater concern among the American public than previous cultural battles. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, with few Republicans trying to defend it given mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer, liquor, and the resulting tax revenues.
In contrast, Hoover was not supported by many of the more prominent Republicans and violently opposed by others, in particular by a number of senators who had fought him throughout his administration and whose national reputation made their opposition of considerable importance. Many prominent Republicans even went so far as to espouse the cause of the Democratic candidate openly.
Making matters worse for Hoover was the fact that many Americans blamed him for the Great Depression. For more than two years, President Hoover had been restricting trade and increasing taxes on the wealthy with legislation such as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and the Revenue Act of 1932. As Governor of New York, Roosevelt had garnered a reputation for promoting government help for the impoverished, providing a welcome contrast for many who saw Hoover as do-nothing president. Roosevelt also attacked Hoover for being, "the greatest spending Administration in peacetime in all our history." The Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election caused by the deaths of veterans in the Bonus Army incident in the summer of 1932, combined with the catastrophic economic effects of Hoover's domestic policies, reduced his chances of a second term from slim to none. His attempts to campaign in public were a disaster, as he often had objects thrown at him or his vehicle as he rode through city streets. However, with unemployment at 23.6%, Hoover’s criticisms of Roosevelt’s campaign promises did nothing more than further lower his popularity with the public. Roosevelt himself did not have a clear idea of the New Deal at this point, so he promised no specific programs. It was said that “Even a vaguely talented dog-catcher could have been elected president against the Republicans.” Hoover even received a letter from an Illinois man that advised, "Vote for Roosevelt and make it unanimous."
Hoover called Roosevelt a "chameleon in plaid" and Roosevelt called President Hoover a "fat, timid capon". In the last days of campaigning, Hoover criticized Roosevelt’s “nonsense . tirades . glittering generalizations . ignorance” and “defamation”.
The election was held on November 8, 1932; however Maine held separate state elections in September.
This was the first election since 1916 (16 years earlier) in which the Democratic candidate would win.
Although the “other” vote (the combined vote total for candidates other than the nominees of the two major parties) of 1932 was three times that of 1928, it was considerably less than what had been recorded in 1920; the time of the greatest “other” vote with the exception of the unusual conditions prevailing in 1912 and 1924.
Roosevelt, the Democratic candidate, won the support of 22,817,883 voters (57.41%), the greatest vote ever cast for a candidate for the Presidency up until that time, and 1,425,000 greater than that cast for Hoover four years earlier. It is to be noted that Hoover won a greater percentage of the vote in 1928, as did Harding in 1920. But the national swing of 35.17% impressed all who considered the distribution of the vote, and indicated that more than one-sixth of the electorate had switched from supporting the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. Only once in this period had there been a comparable shift; in 1920, there was a 29.29% swing towards the Republicans. The swing from Smith in 1928 to Roosevelt in this year remains the greatest Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election swing of the electorate between presidential elections in the history of the United States.
1932 was a realigning election, "Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election" Roosevelt won a sweeping victory over Hoover, with Democrats extending their control over the U.S. House and gaining control of the U.S. Senate. Twelve years of Republican leadership came to an end, and 20 consecutive years of Democratic control of the White House began. Until 1932, the Republicans had controlled the Presidency for Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election of the previous 72 years, dating to "Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election" Lincoln’s election in 1860. After 1932, Democrats would control the Presidency for 28 of the next 36 years.
Roosevelt led the poll in 2,722 counties, the greatest number ever carried by a candidate up until that time. Of these, 282 had never before been Democratic. Only 374 remained loyally Republican. It is to be noted, however, that half of the total vote of the nation was cast in just eight states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin) and that in these states, Hoover polled 8,592,163 votes. In one section (West South Central), the Republican percentage sank to 16.21%, but in no other section did the party poll less Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election 30% of the vote cast. However, the relative appeal of the two candidates in 1932 and the decline of the appeal of Hoover as compared with 1928 are shown in Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election fact that the Republican vote increased in 1932 in only 87 counties, while the Democratic vote increased in 3,003 counties.
The great vote cast for Hoover, and the fact that in only one section of the nation (West South Central) did he have less than 500,000 votes and in only three states outside of the South less than 50,000 votes, made it clear that the nation remained a two-party electorate, and that everywhere, despite the "Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election" of the Democrats, there was a party membership devoted to neither the new administration nor the proposals of the Socialist candidate who had polled 75% of the “other” vote (as well as the highest raw vote total of his campaigns).
This election marks the last time a Republican presidential candidate won a majority of black and African-American votes. As New Deal policies took effect, the strong support of black voters for these programs began a transition from their traditional support for Republicans to providing solid majorities for Democrats.
The Roosevelt ticket swept every region of the country except the Northeast and carried many reliable Republican states that had not been carried by the Democrats since their electoral landslide of 1912, when the Republican vote Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election divided. Michigan voted Democratic for the first time since the emergence of the Republican Party. Minnesota was carried by a Democrat for the first time in its history, leaving Vermont as the only remaining state never to be carried by a Democratic candidate (and it would not be until 1964). In contrast to the state’s solid support of Republicans prior to this election, Minnesota continued supporting Democrats in every presidential Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election but three since 1932, the exceptions being 1952, 1956, and 1972.
Roosevelt’s victory with 472 electoral votes stood until the 1964 victory of Lyndon B. Johnson, who won 486 electoral votes in 1964, as the most ever won by a first-time contestant in a presidential election. Roosevelt also bettered the national record of 444 electoral votes by Hoover only four years earlier, but would shatter his own record when he was re-elected in 1936 with 523 votes.
This was the last election in which Connecticut, Delaware, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania voted Republican Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election 1948.
|Presidential candidate||Party||Home state||Popular vote||Electoral|
|Count||Percentage||Vice-presidential candidate||Home state||Electoral vote|
|Franklin D. Roosevelt||Democratic||New York||22,821,277||57.41%||472||John Nance Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election Hoover (Incumbent)||Republican||California||15,761,254||39.65%||59||Charles Curtis||Kansas||59|
|Norman Thomas||Socialist||New York||884,885||2.23%||0||James H. Maurer||Pennsylvania||0|
|William Z. Foster||Communist||Illinois||103,307||0.26%||0||James W. Ford||Alabama||0|
|William David Upshaw||Prohibition||Georgia||81,905||0.21%||0||Frank S. Regan||Illinois||0|
|William Hope Harvey||Liberty||Arkansas||53,425||0.13%||0||Frank Hemenway||Washington||0|
|Verne L. Reynolds||Socialist Labor||New York||34,038||0.09%||0||John W. Aiken||Massachusetts||0|
|Jacob Coxey||Farmer-Labor||Ohio||7,431||0.02%||0||Julius Reiter||Minnesota||0|
|Needed to win||266||266|
Source (popular vote):Leip, David. "1932 Presidential Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 31, 2005. Source (electoral vote):"Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.
Geography of results
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Presidential election results by county
Democratic presidential election results by county
Republican presidential Ms 5 Solved Assignment 2012 Election results by county
"Other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "Other" presidential election results by county
Results by state
|Franklin D. Roosevelt|
Victimology Research Papers Thomas
Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 campaign.
Roosevelt (seated, center) at Greenway Ranch in Williams, Arizona on September 26, 1932. He is accompanied by U.S. Senator from Arizona Carl Hayden standing far right, along with –among others –three Democrats from the U.S. Senate (seated): Pittman, Walsh, and Cohen.
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic), shades of red are for Hoover (Republican), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood.