Good Dissertation Dedications

 

 

 

 

COGNITIVE ISSUES IN AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT-CONTROLOPERATIONS:  AN INVESTIGATION OFSOFTWARE-MEDIATED

DECISION MAKING IN A SCALED ENVIRONMENT

 

by

Elizabeth D. Murphy

 

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of theGraduate School of the University of Maryland at College Park in

partial fulfillment of the requirements

 of thedegree of

Doctor of Philosophy

2000

 

 

 

AdvisoryCommittee:

      Professor Kent L. Norman, Chair

      Professor Emerita, Nancy S. Anderson

      Professor, Michael Dougherty

      Professor Katherine J. Klein

      Professor Christine M. Mitchell

      Professor Ben Shneiderman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dedication

 

     Thiswork is dedicated to my husband, John A. Murphy, without whose caring supportit would not have been possible, and to the memory of my parents, Hugh Vincentand Edna Sibley Drummond, who passed on a love of reading and respect foreducation.

 

 


Acknowledgements

 

Special thanks to thedistinguished faculty members who served on my committee:  Professors Kent L. Norman (chair),Nancy S. Anderson (Emerita), Michael Dougherty, Katherine J. Klein, ChristineM. Mitchell, and Ben Shneiderman. As my advisor, Dr. Norman provided detailed guidance and encouragementthroughout the course of preparing for and conducting the research. His beliefthat it was, indeed, possible to finish kept me going. Dr. Anderson servedfaithfully on the committee until circumstances prevented her from attendingthe defense.  I am grateful for thehelpful comments she provided on the draft.  Dr. Dougherty kindly filled in for Dr. Anderson, and heprovided insightful comments on short notice.  Thanks to all my committee members for their support,patience, encouragement, and useful suggestions.

My thanks go to Walt Truszkowski and SylviaSheppard of the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center for financial support (NASAgrant NAG5-3425), which provided equipment and personnel, and for their warmencouragement. Many NASA-Goddard personnel generously contributed their timeand operational expertise to answering questions about spacecraft engineeringand human decision-making in spacecraft control.  They include Matthew Brandt, David Bradley, Matthew Fatig,Leigh Gatto, Peter Gonzales, Kevin Hartnett, Cathy Penafiel, Christopher Rouff,Robert Sodano, Stacey St. Pierre, Herman Williams, and William Worrall.  Thanks to personnel at the JohnsHopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for their hospitality and willingness toprovide information about the missions under their control: Ray Harvey (MSXMission Manager), Madeleine Marshall (NEAR Mission Director), and Robert Nelson(NEAR anomaly specialist). 

Major programming issueswere resolved by Daniel Y. Moshinsky, an outstanding undergraduate laboratoryassistant.  Thanks to Daniel forhis patience with changing requirements and for brilliantly overcoming manytechnical obstacles in implementing the experimental simulation as well as theon-line test of spatial ability. Thanks to Kirk Norman, who performed otherimportant programming tasks. Several undergraduate laboratory assistants helped in administering theexperimental treatment.  I'm gratefulto Kelly Hennessy, Daniel Moshinsky, and Kirk Norman for their work withparticipants.

Thanks to aclassmate, Heather Tedesco, for providing materials from her doctoral research,from which many questions were drawn for the distractor survey.  Special thanks to many friends whocheered me on from the beginning, especially Lisa Stewart, Paula VanBalen,Kelly Harwood, and Renate Roske-Shelton. For the suggestion that planted theseed, thanks to Dr. Robert Holt of George Mason University, a great teacher.And special thanks to my family for their good-natured forebearance with theprocess and for their pride in this accomplishment.  It was a team effort.

 

 




TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Dedication                                   ii

 

Acknowledgements                                 iii                             

List of Tables                                   

 

Listof Figures

 

Chapter1.  Introduction                           1

     1.1  Background                          1

     1.2  Definition of Terms                      3

     1.3  Literature Review                        5

          1.3.1Effects of Automation

                on HumanPerformance               6

          1.3.2Trust versus Over-reliance

                on Automation                      6

          1.3.3Passive Monitoring in

                SupervisoryControl          11

          1.3.4Cognitive Demands in

                Autonomous,ASP-based Systems    15

          1.3.5Limitations in Decision

                Making                            17

          1.3.6Information Display Needs

                in On-Call Situations            20

          1.3.7Performance Effects of

                SpatialVisualization

               Ability                          24

     1.4  Research Design                    26

          1.4.1Independent Variables             26

          1.4.2Dependent Variables          28

     1.5  Hypotheses                         30

 

Chapter2.  Method                                35

     2.1  Participants                            35

2.2 Materials                               36

2.3 Simulation Environment                  37

2.4 Procedure                               40

     2.4.1  Pilot Studies               41

     2.4.2  Pre-Experimental Procedure       41

     2.4.3 Experimental Procedure           43

     2.4.4  Data Capture and Analysis        47

 

Chapter3.  Results                               48

     3.1  Effects of Practice                     48

     3.2  Monitoring versus On-Call

          Group Differences                       48

     3.3  Effects of Display-Selection

          Mode                                     54

     3.4  Effects of Display Type                 55

     3.5  Anchoring Effect of Agent

          Confidence                         59

     3.6  Relationships between Subjective

          Confidence Ratingsand Performance

          Measures                                61

     3.7  Attitudes toward Automation

          (Reliability and Trust)               63

     3.8  Perceived Need to Monitor

          AutomatedSystems                       64

     3.9  Effects of Differences in SVA           64

 

Chapter4.  Discussion, DesignImplications,

andSuggestions for Further Research              75

     4.1  Monitoring versus On-Call

          Conditions                         75

     4.2  Levels of Automation               79

     4.3  Table versus Bar Chart versus

          Line Graph                         80

     4.4  Anchoring and Adjustment                81

     4.5  Subjective Confidence Predicts

          Accuracy                                84

     4.6  Novice Effects in AttitudeFindings    85

     4.7  No Change in Rated Need to Monitor      86

     4.8  SVA as a Key Factor in Human-

          Computer Interaction               87

     4.9  General Discussion                      91

 

AppendixA:  Experimental Materials          94

      Consent Form                                94

      Demographics Survey                    95

             Pre-Experimental Automation Survey         97

      Post-Experimental Automation Survey        99

 

AppendixB: MOCHA Screen Shots                 100

 

AppendixC: Training and Test Materials

      MOCHA Problem Descriptions with

      Agent Reasoning                            110

      Sample StatusMessages for the

      Monitoring Condition                      115

    

 

 Instructions for Research

       Participants and Training in

       the Experimental Task                       116

       Training in System Components               122

 

AppendixD: Distractor Survey for the

             On-Call Condition                124

 

References                                    148

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


LIST OF TABLES

 

 

1.       Self-reportedExperience

on a Nine-Point Scale                             29

 

2.       GroupMeans and Standard Deviations

on the Main Dependent Variables                   42

 

3.       Testsof Between-Groups Differences

for Accuracy and Speed                            42

 

  4.  Interaction of MOCHA Grouping Condition

      and Sex on Test Score (Accuracy)                  43

 

5. Summary of Linear Regression Analysis

for Display-Selection Group’s Prediction

of the Number of Bar Charts Displayed

for Test Tasks                                    45

 

6. Summary of Linear Regression Analysis

for Display-Selection Group’s Prediction

of the Number of Timelines Displayed

 forTest Tasks                               48

 

7. Correlations of Percent Correct Using

Different Display Formats on Practice

Problems and Test Problems                        49

 

8.  MeanPercent Correct Using Different

Display Formats Across Practice and

Test Problems                                     49

 

9. Correlations of Percent Correct Using

Different Display Formats on Test

Problems                                          50

 

10. Mean Percent Correct Using Different

Display Formats on Test Problems                  50

 

11. Mean Task-Completion Times Using

Different Display Formats on Test

Problems                                          51

 

12. Descriptive Statistics for Mean Subjective

Confidence, Mean Test Accuracy, and Mean

Task-Completion Time                              53

 

13. Summary of Linear Regression for Mean

 Subjective Confidence as a Hypothesized

 Predictor of Mean Test Accuracy and Mean

 TestTask-Completion Time                        54

 

14. Score Ranges, Mean Test Scores (Accuracy)

 and StandardDeviations for the Three SVA

 Groups                                           57

 

15. Pre-Test and Post-Test Ratings of the Need

 toMonitor Automated Systems by SVA Groups

 on aNine-Point Scale                            58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listof Figures

 

 

   1.Research design                                    27

 

   2. Mean task-completion time (inseconds)

      reachesasymptote over six practice

 tasks.                                            49

 

   3. Interaction between groupingcondition

      (monitoring versus on-call) and sex

      on decision accuracy (mean test score)            53  

 

   4. SVA groups differ on decisionaccuracy as

      measured bytest score                            66

 

   5. Scatter plot of SVA score andtest score

      for men (R2= .28)                                 71

 

   6. Scatter plot of SVA score andtest score

      for women (R2= .12)                               72

 

   7. Welcome screen withpre-entered subject

      number (125)and monitoring condition

      selected

 

   8. Sample problem from the VZ-2test of spatial-

      visualizationability (SVA)

 

   9. Hierarchy of MOCHA componentsused for pre-

      practice training

 

  10. Monitoring condition: Statusmessages

      coming up inthe Description area in-

      between problems

 

  11. Sample MOCHA problem with systemdata

      displayed in atable

 

  12. Sample MOCHA problem with systemdata

      displayed in abar chart

 

  13. Sample MOCHA problem with systemdata

      displayed in a line graph

 

  14. Manual display mode: Subject was

      given a choiceof the display format

         to be presented (table, barchart, or

         line graph).

 

     15. The Details dialogbox required the

         subject to provide anexplanation for

         deciding that, in thiscase, the actual

         problem was the problem asreported by

         the advanced softwareprocess in the

         problem description.

 

     16. Final screen of theMOCHA experiment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Main body

Writing About Dedication Samples

Dedication page is the part of any , or a .

What is a Dedication Page in a Thesis or Research Paper

This part is, basically, a source to offer warmest gratefulness of the writer towards any other person for whom he wish to pay honor. Dedication page always comes on the front of the book or thesis. So, if you have done with your research and now planning to write a dedication page in a book or thesis then this article would be the right choice for you. Here, you will come with dedication quotes, words for dedication, sample dedication and other dedication examples that will assist you in turning your dedication a great blast.

Some Helpful Tips to Remember Before Writing the Dedication Page of Thesis

First of all, remember writing a dedication page for a thesis, dissertation or a is not a difficult deal. Though, it is a fact that a little bit of concentration and focus can better guide you in writing a great dedication page for your final project. Basically, dedication page shows your devotion and sense of appreciation for those who have assisted you in the pursuit of your academic goal. It can be termed as a source of acknowledgment for those who have offered their help whole heartedly in the fulfillment of your studies. However, it is also interesting to note that dedication page is totally optional and up to your willingness to add or subtract. Sometimes, it happens that you get quite nostalgic when start finding out people in your memory who have supported you to get in touch with the finish line of your project. Anyways, you do not need to worry about such situation as you can streamline all the names and add them in the dedication segment.

Helpful Guide to Write a Dedication Page in Research

Here are some important points to remember before going through dedication writing.

  • First of all, if you are going to add dedication page in your term paper, thesis or dissertation then it should always be added just after endorsement.
  • The dedication page will not be numbered as well as it will not be counted in total page count.
  • Formatting of dedication page is also unrestricted. You can easily go with any style or format. Anyways, for better output, it is also recommended that always follow the advice of your supervisor or project coordinator regarding the style and formatting of dedication page. You can read more about in detail including the , , and  .
  • The dedication page should be briefest and should not exceed from one page.
  • Before starting dedication page, you should develop a list of institutions as well as people you wish to pay tribute to. Individuals that you are choosing might be your parents, siblings or peers who have helped you in any way during your career. The support they offer you might be moral as well as monetary. Dedication is paid just to offer a thankful note towards their sincere support. Institutions are added in the dedication that have supported in your research or funded you with a scholarship for the successful fulfillment of your thesis or dissertation.

You can read more about the .

Steps to Write a Dedication Page for Your Thesis or Research Paper

When you finally then it is time to make a right decision in choosing a person whom you wish to be the part of your book. It is right to say that you may pass through anxiety while choosing some out of so many people whom you are going to dedicate your work. However, just make right choice after having careful look.

Remember, your dedication may be formal to informal. You can also go with beautiful dedication quotes or poems for this page of your thesis. On formal note, you can dedicate your work to your professor, supervisor, parents or any institution that supported you in the fulfillment of your academic goal. On the other hand, informal options might be your siblings, peers or even a favorite pet. However, whatever the choice you make, remember to enclose the reason of your dedication to that specific person or institution.

Here are some tips as how you can address a dedication as well as sample dedications for your assistance.

Tips on How to Address a Dedication

There are so many ways in which you can easily address your dedication. For example

  • “This is dedicated to …”
  • “I would like to dedicate my work to…”
  • “I dedicate this book to…”
  • “In dedication to my…”
  • “It is our genuine gratefulness and warmest regard that we dedicate this work to…”

Alternative Formats for a Dedication

It is quite interesting to note that funny anecdotes and poems may also be the part of your dedication. However, it is better option to keep your dedication as concise and simple as it can be. Read some .

Sample of Dedication for a Book

Here are some examples from famous

  1. Joseph J. Rotman presents his book ‘An Introduction to Algebric Topology’ with a dedication to his beloved wife and children by adding a sense of humor for the readers

    “To my wife Marganit and my children Ella Rose and Daniel Adam without whom this book would have been completed two years earlier.”

  2. On the other hand Lemony Snicket have added poetic expression while writing his dedication in his famous work ‘A Series of Unfortunate Events’

    “For Beatrice-I cherished, you perished.The world’s been night-marished.”

  3. Robb Hobb encloses his dedication with a funny anecdotes in his famous book

    “To caffeine and sugar, my companions through many a long night of writing.”

  4.  Sean Carroll also presents his dedication towards his mother in beautiful words in his book ‘The Particle at the End of the Universe’

    “To Mom, Who took me to the library.”

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