Koran Online Wikipedia Bibliography

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for news articles in print, video, audio or web.

This template is used on 200,000+ pages.
To avoid large-scale disruption and unnecessary server load, any changes to this template should first be tested in its /sandbox or /testcases subpages or in your own user subpage. The tested changes can then be added to this page in a single edit. Please consider discussing any changes on the talk page before implementing them.


Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

To cite a news article with a credited author

To cite a news article with no credited author

To cite an online news article that has been archived

To cite a news article written in a foreign language
To cite and quote an archived, two-author, foreign language news article re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription
To cite a news article with a credited author
{{cite news | last = | first = | date = | title = | url = | work = | location = | access-date = }}
To cite a news article with no credited author
{{cite news | author =<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> | title = | url = | work = | location = | date = | access-date = }}
To cite an online news article that has been archived
{{cite news | last = | first = | date = | title = | url = | dead-url = | work = | location = | archive-url = | archive-date = | access-date = }}
To cite a news article written in a foreign language
{{cite news | last = | first = | date = | title = | trans-title = | url = | language = | work = | location = | access-date = }}
To cite and quote an archived, two-author, foreign language news article re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription
{{cite news | last1 = | first1 = | last2 = | first2 = | date = | title = | trans-title = | url = | dead-url = | format = | language = | work = | location = | archive-url = | archive-date = | access-date = | via = | subscription = | quote = }}
Vertical listPrerequisitesBrief instructions / notes
{{cite news | last1 = | first1 = | author-link1 = | last2 = | first2 = | author-link2 = | last3 = | first3 = | author-link3 = | last4 = | first4 = | author-link4 = | last5 = | first5 = | author-link5 = | display-authors = | author-mask = | name-list-format = | last-author-amp = | date = | year = | title = | script-title = | trans-title = | url = | dead-url = | format = | editor1-last = | editor1-first = | editor1-link = | editor2-last = | editor2-first = | editor2-link = | editor3-last = | editor3-first = | editor3-link = | editor4-last = | editor4-first = | editor4-link = | editor5-last = | editor5-first = | editor5-link = | display-editors = | department = | work = | type = | series = | language = | volume = | issue = | others = | edition = | location = | publisher = | publication-date = | agency = | page = | pages = | at = | nopp = | arxiv = | asin = | bibcode = | doi = | doi-broken-date = | isbn = | issn = | jfm = | jstor = | lccn = | mr = | oclc = | ol = | osti = | pmc = | pmid = | rfc = | ssrn = | zbl = | id = | archive-url = | archive-date = | access-date = | via = | registration = | subscription = | lay-url = | lay-source = | lay-date = | quote = | postscript = | ref = }}
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Choosing between {{Cite web}} and {{Cite news}}

Before 2014, editors needed to decide whether to use {{Cite web}} or {{Cite news}} based on their features. In 2014, however, most of the differences between the two templates were eliminated.

As of 29 July 2016, {{Cite web}} and {{Cite news}} have the following differences:

But given the same set of valid parameters, their output is exactly the same:


A news article with a credited author
Displays as:
A news article released by a news agency and having no credited author
Displays as:
A news article that has been archived
Displays as:
A news article written in a foreign language
Displays as:
A two author news article that you quote and archive, is written in a foreign language and has been re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription
Displays as:
  • Sueiro, Marcos; Guzman, Lucia (2012-05-12). "El Crimen de Lucia Barranta Será Juzgado por un Jurado Popular" [Lucia Barranta's Crime Will Be Judged by a Jury] (PDF). El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain. Archived from the original on 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2012-06-22 – via Highbeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).  



Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.).


This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use not

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example , , etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup (italic font) or (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters

  • , , , , , , , ,
  • , , , ,
  • , , ,
  • , , ,
  • ,
  • ,
  • , ,
  • , ,
  • , , , , ,
  • , , , ,
  • , , ,
  • any of the named identifiers (, , , , etc)


None of the cs1|2 parameters is deprecated.



  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. ). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last, first, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each first requires a corresponding last). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surname, given, or author1 through author. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use .
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-link. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlink, or author1-link through author-link, or author1link through authorlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to and when the list uses / parameters for the name list(s).
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-last, translator-first, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-first requires a corresponding translator-last). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translator-last, translator-first, or translator1 through translator.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-link. Aliases: translator1-link through translator-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.


(See also Help:Citation Style 1 §Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will not display and link correctly unless those characters are encoded.
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
  • language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. . The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.


  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. . Displayed in parentheses following volume.
    • department: Title of a regular department, column, or section within the periodical or journal. Examples include "Communication", "Editorial", "Letter to the Editor", and "Review". Displays after title and is in plain text.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.


  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with " ", like this: .
For no date, or "undated", add as
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The template uses , or the template is , or
    2. The format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    3. The citation requires a disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: or . Alias: origyear
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    – as above for month day, year format
    – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    – as above for month day, year format
    – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD


  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, the location will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription parameters.

Edition, volume

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volumes of four characters or less display in bold.

In-source locations

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either or , but not both. Displays preceded by unless .
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either or , but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by unless . Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use or .
    • nopp: Set to , , or to suppress the or notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where or .
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by or . Use only one of , , or .
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.


  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. or . For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1]Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page if the original URL is no longer available. Typically used to refer to services such as WebCite(see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive(see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by ) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
      • dead-url: the default value of this optional parameter, if omitted, is . Equivalent values are or . When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set ; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting or suppresses display of the original URL (but is still required). Alias: deadurl.
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error-checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated. Alias: no-cat.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. and will be supported by all browsers; however, , , , , and may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by . To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
 %20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.



  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as to append NCJ122967 instead.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. or .

  • arxiv: arXividentifier; for example: (before April 2007) or (April 2007 – December 2014) or (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: , , , , , , , , , ,
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example:
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733)
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi= )
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: . It is checked to ensure it begins with ().
    • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at https://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi-inactive-date
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: EISSN
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. Alias: HDL
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: . (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as . Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: . Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISMN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: ISSN
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: will generate JSTOR3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. . Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
    • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH


  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation.


  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last). This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-last, editor-first (Aliases: editor-last, editor-surname or editor-surname; editor-first, editor-given or editor-given; editor). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use .
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-link (alias editor-link).
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to and when the list uses / parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
  • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in , as described above
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."


  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

Display options

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For , element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For , element separator is a comma (); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by , or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( ) when set to , , or . Example:
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (); for no terminating punctuation, specify – leaving empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation.

Four access levels can be used:

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access level of

Links inserted with are expected to be free to read by default. If not, editors can use one of

    to indicate the relevant access restriction.

    Access level of identifiers

    Links inserted by identifiers such as are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use (in the case of ) to indicate the relevant access level. The following identifiers are supported:

    • with
    • with
    • with
    • with
    • with
    • with

    Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for , , , , and .

    Ambiguous access parameters

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    Translations of the Qur'an are interpretations of the scripture of Islam in languages other than Arabic. Qur'an was originally written in the Arabic language and has been translated into most major African, Asian and European languages.[1]

    Islamic theology[edit]

    Further information: Islamic theology

    Translation of the Qur'an has always been a problematic and difficult issue in Islamic theology. Since Muslims revere the Qur'an as miraculous and inimitable (i'jaz al-Qur'an), they argue that the Qur'anic text should not be isolated from its true form to another language or form, at least not without keeping the Arabic text along with. Furthermore, an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings depending on the context – a feature present in all Semitic languages, when compared to the moderately analytic English, Latin, and Romance languages – making an accurate translation even more difficult.[1]

    According to modern Islamic theology, the Qur'an is a revelation very specifically in Arabic, and so it should only be recited in Quranic Arabic. Translations into other languages are necessarily the work of humans and so, according to Muslims, no longer possess the uniquely sacred character of the Arabic original. Since these translations necessarily subtly change the meaning, they are often called "interpretations"[2] or "translation[s] of the meanings" (with "meanings" being ambiguous between the meanings of the various passages and the multiple possible meanings with which each word taken in isolation can be associated, and with the latter connotation amounting to an acknowledgement that the so-called translation is but one possible interpretation and is not claimed to be the full equivalent of the original). For instance, Pickthall called his translation The Meaning of the Glorious Koran rather than simply The Koran.

    The task of translation is not an easy one; some native Arab-speakers will confirm that some Qur'anic passages are difficult to understand even in the original Arabic. A part of this is the innate difficulty of any translation; in Arabic, as in other languages, a single word can have a variety of meanings.[2] There is always an element of human judgement involved in understanding and translating a text. This factor is made more complex by the fact that the usage of words has changed a great deal between classical and modern Arabic. As a result, even Qur'anic verses which seem perfectly clear to native speakers accustomed to modern vocabulary and usage may not represent the original meaning of the verse.

    The original meaning of a Qur'anic passage will also be dependent on the historical circumstances of the prophet Muhammad's life and early community in which it originated. Investigating that context usually requires a detailed knowledge of hadith and sirah, which are themselves vast and complex texts. This introduces an additional element of uncertainty which cannot be eliminated by any linguistic rules of translation.


    The first translation of the Qur'an was performed by Salman the Persian, who translated Surahal-Fatihah into the Persian language during the early 7th century.[3] According to Islamic tradition contained in the hadith, Emperor Negus of Abyssinia and Byzantine EmperorHeraclius received letters from Muhammad containing verses from the Qur'an[citation needed]. However, during Muhammad's lifetime, no passage from the Qur'an was ever translated into these languages nor any other.[1]

    The second known translation was into Greek and was used by Nicetas Byzantius, a scholar from Constantinople, in his 'Refutation of Quran' written between 855 and 870. However, we know nothing about who and for what purpose had made this translation. It is however very probable that it was a complete translation.[4]

    The first fully attested complete translations of the Quran were done between the 10th and 12th centuries in Persian language. The Samanid king, Mansur I (961–976), ordered a group of scholars from Khorasan to translate the Tafsir al-Tabari, originally in Arabic, into Persian. Later in the 11th century, one of the students of Abu Mansur Abdullah al-Ansari wrote a complete tafsir of the Quran in Persian. In the 12th century, Abu Hafs Omar al-Nasafi translated the Quran into Persian. The manuscripts of all three books have survived and have been published several times.

    In 1936, translations in 102 languages were known.[1]

    European languages[edit]


    Robertus Ketenensis produced the first Latin translation of the Qur'an in 1143.[1] His version was entitled Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete ("The law of Mahomet the false prophet"). The translation was made at the behest of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, and currently exists in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris. According to modern scholars[citation needed], the translation tended to "exaggerate harmless text to give it a nasty or licentious sting" and preferred improbable and unpleasant meanings over likely and decent ones. Ketenensis' work was republished in 1543 in three editions by Theodore Bibliander at Basel along with Cluni corpus and other Christian propaganda. All editions contained a preface by Martin Luther. Many later European "translations" of the Qur'an merely translated Ketenensis' Latin version into their own language, as opposed to translating the Qur'an directly from Arabic. As a result, early European translations of the Qur'an were erroneous and distorted.[1]

    In the early thirteenth century, Mark of Toledo made another, more literal, translation into Latin, which survives in a number of manuscripts. In the fifteenth century, Juan of Segovia produced another translation in collaboration with the Mudejar writer, Isa of Segovia. Only the prologue survives. In the sixteenth century, Juan Gabriel Terrolensis aided Cardenal Eguida da Viterbo in another translation into Latin. In the early seventeenth century, another translated was made, attributed to Cyril Lucaris.

    Ludovico Marracci (1612–1700), a teacher of the Arabic language at the Sapienza University of Rome and confessor to Pope Innocent XI, issued a second Latin translation in 1698 in Padua.[5] His edition contains the Quran's Arabic text with a Latin translation, annotations to further understanding and – embued by the time's spirit of controversy – an essay titled "Refutation of the Qur'an", where Marracci disproves Islam from the then Catholic point of view. Despite the refutatio's anti-Islamic tendency Marracci's translation is accurate and suitably commented; besides, by quoting many Islamic sources he certainly broadens his time's horizon considerably.[6]

    Marracci's translation too became the source of other European translations (one in France by Savory, and one in German by Nerreter). These later translations were quite inauthentic, and one even claimed to be published in Mecca in 1165 AH.[1]

    Modern languages[edit]

    The first translation in a modern European language was in Castilian or Aragonese by the convert Juan Andrés (or so he claims in his Confusión o Confutación de la secta mahomética y del alcorán) but this translation is lost. A few dozen Quran verses into Castilian are found within the Confusión itself. Another Romance translation was made into Italian, 1547 by Andrea Arrivabene, derived from Ketenensis'. The Italian translation was used to derive the first German translation Salomon Schweigger in 1616 in Nuremberg, which in turn was used to derive the first Dutch translation in 1641.[1]

    The first French translation came out in 1647, and again in 1775, issued by André du Ryer. The Du Ryer translation also fathered many re-translations, most notably an English version by Alexander Ross in 1649. Ross' version was used to derive several others: a Dutch version by Glazemaker, a German version by Lange.[1]

    French Language[edit]

    L'Alcoran de Mahomet / translaté d'Arabe François par le Sieur Du Ryer, Sieur de la Garde Malezair., 1647, 1649, 1672, 1683, 1719, 1734, 1770, 1775, by André Du Ryer, was the first French translation. This was followed two centuries later in Paris by the 1840 translation by Kasimirski who was an interpreter for the French Persian legation. Then in the mid-twentieth century a new translation was done by Régis Blachère a French Orientalist followed few years later in 1959 by the first translation by a Muslim into the French Language from the original Arabic . This work of Muhammad Hamidullah continues to be reprinted and published in Paris and Lebanon as it is regarded as the most linguistically accurate of all translation although critics may complain there is some loss of the spirit of the Arabic original.


    There are four complete translations of the Qur'an in modern Spanish that are commonly available.

    • Julio Cortes translation 'El Coran' is widely available in North America, being published by New York-based Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an publishing house.
    • Ahmed Abboud and Rafael Castellanos, two converts to Islam of Argentine origin, published 'El Sagrado Coran' (El Nilo, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1953).
    • Kamel Mustafa Hallak fine deluxe hardback print 'El Coran Sagrado' is printed by Maryland-based Amana Publications.
    • Abdel Ghani Melara Navio a Spaniard who converted to Islam in 1979, his 'Traduccion-Comentario Del Noble Coran' was originally published by Darussalam Publications, Riyadh, in December 1997. The King Fahd Printing Complex has their own version of this translation, with editing by Omar Kaddoura and Isa Amer Quevedo.


    Main article: English translations of the Quran

    The earliest known translation of the Qur'an in any European language was the Latin works by Robert of Ketton at the behest of the Abbot of Cluny in c. 1143. As Latin was the language of the church it never sought to question what would now be regarded as blatant inaccuracies in this translation which remained the only one until 1649 when the first English language translation was done by Alexander Ross, chaplain to King Charles I, who translated from a French work L'Alcoran de Mahomet by du Ryer. In 1734, George Sale produced the first translation of the Qur'an direct from Arabic into English but reflecting his missionary stance. Since then, there have been English translations by the clergyman John Medows Rodwell in 1861, and Edward Henry Palmer in 1880, both showing in their works a number of mistakes of mistranslation and misinterpretation, which brings into question their primary aim. These were followed by Richard Bell in 1937 and Arthur John Arberry in the 1950s.

    The Qur'an (1910) by Dr. Mirza Abul Fazl (1865–1956), a native of East Bengal (now Bangladesh), later moved to Allahabad, India. He was the first Muslim to present a translation of the Qur'an into English along with the original Arabic text. Among the contemporary Muslim scholars Dr. Mirza Abul Fazl was a pioneer who took interest in the study of the chronological order of the Qur'an and drew the attention of Muslim scholars to its importance.

    With the increasing population of English-speaking Muslims around the start of the 20th century, three Muslim translations of the Qur'an into English made their first appearance. The first was Muhammad Ali's 1917 translation, which is composed from an Ahmadiyya perspective, with some small parts being rejected as unorthodox interpretation by vast majority of Muslims. This was followed in 1930 by the English convert to Islam Marmaduke Pickthall's translation, which is literal and therefore regarded as the most accurate.[7] Soon thereafter in 1934, Abdullah Yusuf Ali (from Bohra community) published his translation, featuring copious explanatory annotation – over 6000 notes, generally being around 95% of the text on a given page – to supplement the main text of the translation. This translation has gone through over 30 printings by several different publishing houses, and is one of the most popular amongst English-speaking Muslims, alongside the Pickthall and Saudi-sponsored Hilali-Khan translations.[8]

    With few new English translations over the 1950–1980 period, these three Muslim translations were to flourish and cement reputations that were to ensure their survival into the 21st century, finding favour among readers often in newly revised updated editions. Orientalist Arthur Arberry's 1955 translation and native Iraqi Jew N. J. Dawood's unorthodox translation in 1956 were to be the only major works to appear in the post-war period. A. J. Arberry's The Koran Interpreted remains the scholarly standard for English translations, and is widely used by academics.[8]

    The English Translation of Kanzul Iman is called "The Treasure of Faith," which is translated by Farid Ul Haq. It is in simple, easy-to-understand modern-day English. Explanations are given in brackets to avoid ambiguity, provide better understanding and references to similar verses elsewhere.

    Dr. Syed Abdul Latif's translation published in 1967, regarded highly by some (he was a professor of English at Osmania University, Hyderabad), was nevertheless short-lived due to criticism of his foregoing accuracy for the price of fluency.

    The Message of the Qur'an: Presented in Perspective (1974) was published by Dr. Hashim Amir Ali. He translated the Qur'an into English and arranged it according to chronological order. Dr. Hashim Amir-Ali (1903-c. 1987) was a native of Salar Jung, Hyderabad, Deccan. In 1938 he came under the influence of Dr. Mirza Abul Fazl Allahabadi, and took a deep interest in the study of the Qur'an and was aware of the significance of the chronological order of the passages contained in it.

    A Jewish convert to Islam, Muhammad Asad's monumental work The Message of The Qur'an made its appearance for the first time in 1980.

    Professor Ahmed Ali's Al-Qur'an: A Contemporary Translation (Akrash Publishing, Karachi, 1984, Reprinted by Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1987; Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1988, with 9th reprinting 2001). Fazlur Rahman Malik of the University of Chicago writes, "It brings out the original rhythms of the Qur'anic language and the cadences. It also departs from traditional translations in that it gives more refined and differentiated shades of important concepts". According to Francis Edward Peters of New York University, "Ahmed Ali's work is clear, direct, and elegant – a combination of stylistic virtues almost never found in translations of the Qur'an. His is the best I have read".

    At the cusp of the 1980s, the 1973 oil crisis, the Iranian Revolution, the Nation of Islam and a new wave of cold-war generated Muslim immigrants to Europe and North America brought Islam squarely into the public limelight for the first time in Western Europe and North America. This resulted in a wave of translations as Western publishers tried to capitalize on the new demand for English translations of the Qur'an. Oxford University Press and Penguin Books were all to release editions at this time, as did indeed the Saudi Government, which came out with its own re-tooled version of the original Yusuf Ali translation. Canadian Muslim Professor T. B. Irving's 'modern English' translation (1985) was a major Muslim effort during that time.[citation needed]

    Qur'an: The Final Testament, Islamic Productions, Tucson, Arizona, (1989) was published by Rashad Khalifa (رشاد خليفة; 19 November 1935 – 31 January 1990) Khalifa wrote that he was a messenger (rasool) of God and that the Archangel Gabriel 'most assertively' told him that chapter 36, verse 3, of the Quran, 'specifically' referred to him.[9][10] He is referred to as God's Messenger of the Covenant, by his followers.[11] He wrote that the Quran contains a mathematical structure based on the number 19. He made the controversial claim that the last two verses of chapter nine in the Quran were not canonical, telling his followers to reject them.[12] His reasoning was that the verses, disrupted an otherwise flawless nineteen-based pattern and were sacrilegious inasmuch as they appeared to endorse worship of Mohammed. Khalifa's research received little attention in the West. In 1980, Martin Gardner mentioned it in Scientific American.[13] Gardner later wrote a more extensive and critical review of Khalifa and his work.[14]

    The arrival of the 1990s ushered in the phenomenon of an extensive English-speaking Muslim population well-settled in Western Europe and North America. As a result, several major Muslim translations emerged to meet the ensuing demand. One of them was published in 1990, and it is by the first woman to translate the Quran into English, Amatul Rahman Omar, together with her husband, Abdul Mannan Omar[15]. In 1991 appeared an English translation under the title: The Clarion Call Of The Eternal Qur-aan, by Muhammad Khalilur Rahman (b. 1906–1988), Dhaka, Bangladesh. He was the eldest son of Shamsul Ulama Moulana Muhammad Ishaque of Burdwan, West Bengal, India, – a former lecturer of Dhaka University.[citation needed]

    In 1996 the Saudi government financed a new translation "the Hilali-Khan Qur'an" which was distributed free worldwide by the Saudi government as it was in line with their particular interpretation .[16]

    In 1999 a fresh translation of the Qur'an into English entitled The Noble Qur’an – A New Rendering of its Meaning in English by Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley (who is an American) was published by Bookwork,[17] with revised editions being published in 2005 [18] and 2011.[19]

    The Qur'an in Persian and English (Bilingual Edition, 2001) features an English translation by the Iranian poet and author Tahere Saffarzadeh. This was the third translation of the Qur'an into English by a woman, after Amatul Rahman Omar,[20] and Aisha Bewley – and the first bilingual translation of the Qur'an.[21][22][23]

    In 2004 a new translation of the Qur'an by Muhammad Abdel-Haleem was also published, with revised editions being published in 2005 [24] and 2008.[25]

    In 2007 The Sublime Qur'an appeared by Laleh Bakhtiar; it is the second translation of the Qur'an by an American woman.[21][26][27][28]

    In 2009 Maulana Wahiduddin Khan translated the Quran in English, which was published by Goodword Books entitled, The Quran: Translation and Commentary with Parallel Arabic Text. This translation is considered as the most easy to understand due to simple and modern English. The pocket size version of this translation with only English text is widely distributed as part of dawah work.

    A rhymed verse edition of the entire Qur'an rendered in English by Thomas McElwain in 2010 includes rhymed commentary under the hardback title The Beloved and I, Volume Five, and the paperback title The Beloved and I: Contemplations on the Qur'an.

    In 2015 Dr. Mustafa Khattab of Al-Azhar University completed The Clear Quran: A Thematic English Translation, after three years of collaboration with a team of scholars, editors, and proof-readers. Noted for its clarity, accuracy, and flow, this work is believed to be the first English translation done in Canada.[29]

    Asian languages[edit]


    First Urdu translation of Quran was done by Shah Abdul Qadir who was the son of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi. One of the authentic translation of Quran in Urdu was done by Imam Ahmed Rida Khan and was named Kanzul Iman. Molana Ashiq Elahi Merathi also translated the Qur'an in Urdu. Tafseer e Merathi is a renowned translation of Quran along with Tafseer and Shan e Nazool in Urdu by Molana Ashiq Elahi Merathi, as well as Irfan-ul-Quran a translation by Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri also an Urdu translation of the Quran.[30] [Mutalaeh Quran مطالعہ قرآن] by ABDULLAH, 2014, is an Urdu Translation .[31]


    Girish Chandra Sen, a Brahmo Samaj missionary, was the first person to produce a complete translation of the Qur'an into Bangla language in 1886. although a currently known to be incomplete translation was made by Amiruddin Basunia in 1808.[32][33] Abbas Ali of Candipur West Bengal was the first Muslim who translated the entire Qur'an into Bangla. It is also said that one Moulana Mohammad Noymuddin of Tangail translated 1st 10 chapters of Quran in Bangla.[34] Besides many translated Quranic exegesis are available in Bengali language.[35]

    Hindi and Gujarati[edit]

    Kanzul Iman was also translated into the Hindi, followed by Bengali and Gujarati.[36]


    Translated as Fathhur-Rahma Fi Tarjimati Tafsir al-Quran (Qur'an translation) By Sheikh Mustafa (1836 – 25 July 1888)Beruwala Sri Lanka; Later on Abdul Hameed Bhakavi Tamil Nadu- India


    Elmalılı Muhammed Hamdi Yazır worked on Qur'anic exegesis in Maturidi context, and published his HakkDīniKur'anDili in Turkish in 1935.[citation needed]


    The first translation into Japanese was done by Sakamoto Ken-ichi in 1920. Sakamoto worked from Rodwell's English translation. Takahashi Goro, Bunpachiro (Ahmad) Ariga and Mizuho Yamaguchi produced Japan's second translation in 1938. The first translation from the Arabic was done by Toshihiko Izutsu in 1945.[37] In 1950, another translation appeared by Shūmei Ōkawa (1886–1957), who had been charged with war-crimes after the World War II on account of his anti-Western sympathies.[38] Other translations have appeared more recently by Ban Yasunari and Osamu Ikeda in 1970 and by Umar Ryoichi Mita in 1972.


    It is claimed that Yusuf Ma Dexin (1794–1874) is the first translator of the Koran into Chinese.[citation needed] However, the first complete translations into Chinese did not appear until 1927, although Islam had been present in China since the Tang dynasty (618–907). Wang Jingzhai was one of the first Chinese Muslims to translate the Koran. His translation, the Gǔlánjīng yìjiě, appeared in either 1927[39] or 1932, with new revised versions being issued in 1943 and 1946. The translation by Lǐ Tiězhēng, a non-Muslim, was not from the original Arabic, but from John Medows Rodwell's English via Sakamoto Ken-ichi's Japanese. A second non-Muslim translation appeared in 1931, edited by Jī Juémí. Other translations appeared in 1943, by Liú Jǐnbiāo, and 1947, by Yáng Zhòngmíng. The most popular version today is the Gǔlánjīng, translated by Mǎ Jiān, parts of which appeared between 1949 and 1951, with the full edition being published posthumously only in 1981.

    Tóng Dàozhāng, a Muslim Chinese American, produced a modern translation, entitled Gǔlánjīng, in 1989. The most recent translation appeared in Taibei in 1996, the Qīngzhēn xīliú – Gǔlánjīng xīnyì, translated by Shěn Xiázhǔn, but it has not found favour with Muslims.[40]

    Indonesian languages[edit]

    The Koran has also been translated to Acehnese, Buginese, Gorontalo, Javanese, Sundanese, and Indonesian of Indonesia, the most populous Muslim country in the world. Translation into Acehnese was done by Mahijiddin Yusuf in 1995; into Buginese by Daude Ismaile and Nuh Daeng Manompo in 1982; into Gorontalo by Lukman Katili in 2008; into Javanese by Ngarpah (1913), Kyai Bisyri Mustafa Rembang (1964), and K. H. R. Muhamad Adnan; in Sundanese by A.A. Dallan, H. Qamaruddin Shaleh, Jus Rusamsi in 1965; and in Indonesian at least in three versions: A Dt. Madjoindo, H.M Kasim Bakery, Imam M. Nur Idris, A. Hassan, Mahmud Yunus, H.S. Fachruddin, H., Hamidy (all in the 1960s), Mohammad Diponegoro, Bachtiar Surin (all in the 1970s), and Departemen Agama Republik Indonesia (Indonesian Department of Religious Affair).[41]

    Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages[edit]

    William Shellabear (1862–1948) a British scholar and missionary in Malaysia, after translating the Bible into the Malay language began a translation of the Qur'an, but died in 1948 without finishing it.[42]

    African languages[edit]

    • Translation of the Qur'an to Swahili by Sheikh Ali Muhsin al-Barwani.
    • Translation of the Qur'an to Hausa by Sheikh Muhamud Gumi.
    • Translation of the Qur'an to Yoruba by Sheikh Adam Abdullah Al-Ilory.
    • Translation of the Qur'an to Dagbanli by Sheikh M. Baba Gbetobu.[43]


    After the fall of the Shah, Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran called on Muslims to learn Esperanto. Shortly thereafter, an official Esperanto translation of the Qur'an was produced by the state.

    Allama Muztar Abbasi also translated the Quran into Esperanto and wrote a biography of Muhammad and several other books in Esperanto and Urdu.

    In 1970, Professor Italo Chiussi, of the Ahmadiyya sect, translated the Quran into Esperanto.[44]

    See also[edit]


    1. ^ abcdefghiFatani, Afnan (2006). "Translation and the Qur'an". In Leaman, Oliver. The Qur'an: an encyclopaedia. Great Britain: Routeledge. pp. 657–669. 
    2. ^ abRuthven, Malise (2006). Islam in the World. Granta. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-86207-906-9. 
    3. ^An-Nawawi, Al-Majmu', (Cairo, Matbacat at-'Tadamun n.d.), 380.
    4. ^Christian Høgel, "An early anonymous Greek translation of the Qur'an. The fragments from Niketas Byzantios' Refutatio and the anonymous Abjuratio", Collectanea Christiana Orientalia 7 (2010), pp. 65–119; Kees Versteegh, "Greek translations of the Quran in Christian polemics (9th century)", Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 141 (1991); Astérios Argyriou, "Perception de l'Islam et traductions du Coran dans le monde byzantin grec", Byzantion 75 (2005).
    5. ^S. M. Zwemer: Translations of the Koran, The Moslem World, 1915
    6. ^Borrmans, Maurice (2002). "Ludovico Marracci et sa traduction latine du Coran" [Ludovico Marracci and its Latin translation of the Qur'ân]. Islamochristiana (in French) (28): 73–86. INIST:14639389. 
    7. ^by renowned Islamic scholar and linguist Muhammad Hamidullah
    8. ^ abMohammed, Khaleel (1 March 2005). "Assessing English Translations of the Qur'an". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    9. ^Appendix ii, (21), Authorized English Translation of the Quran, Dr. Rashad Khalifa, PhD
    10. ^"God or Allah in Islam (Submission in English),Islam (Submission). Your best source for Islam on the Intenet. Happiness is submission to God – Allah, God, Islam, Muslims, Moslems, Arabic, Farsi, Urdu, Indonesia, Arabia, Mecca, USA-Prophet Muhammed's Last S". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    11. ^[1]
    12. ^″The idol worshipers were destined to tamper with the Quran by adding 2 false verses (9:128–129).″
    13. ^Gardner, Martin (1980), Mathematical Games, Scientific American, September 1980, pp16–20.
    14. ^The numerology of Dr. Rashad Khalifa – scientist, Martin Gardner, Skeptical Inquirer, Sept–Oct 1997
    15. ^Quran Translation by Amatul Rahman Omar and Abdul Rahman Omar: Amatul Rahman Omar – The First Woman to Translate the Quran into English
    16. ^Muttaqun Online: The Noble QuranArchived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
    17. ^Molloy, Rebecca B. "The Noble Qur'ān: A New Rendering of its Meaning in English, translated by BewleyAbdallhaqq and BewleyAisha. 651 pages, glossary. Norwich, UK: Bookwork, 1999. ISBN 1-874216-36-3". Review of Middle East Studies. 35 (1): 134–134. doi:10.1017/S0026318400042188. Retrieved 23 June 2017 – via Cambridge Core. 
    18. ^"The Noble Qur'an: A New Rendering of Its Meaning in English". Bookwork. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017 – via Amazon. 
    19. ^"The Noble Qur'an – a New Rendering of its Meaning in English – Diwan Press". www.diwanpress.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    20. ^Amatul Rahman Omar, "The Holy Qur'an – English", The Holy Qur'an – English, 1990. ISBN 0-9766972-3-8
    21. ^ abQuran. "The Sublime Quran: Laleh Bakhtiar: 9781567447507: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2015-05-10. 
    22. ^Saffarzadeh Commemoration Due Iran Daily, 18 October 2010
    23. ^Art News in Brief Tehran Times, 28 October 2008
    24. ^"0192831933 – Oxford University Press, UK – The Qur'an". Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    25. ^"The Qur'an". OUP Oxford. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2017 – via Amazon. 
    26. ^"A new look at a holy text – tribunedigital-chicagotribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 2015-05-10. 
    27. ^Useem, Andrea (18 April 2007). "Laleh Bakhtiar: An American Woman Translates the Qur'an". Publishersweekly.com. Retrieved 2015-05-10. 
    28. ^Aslan, Reza (20 November 2008). "How To Read the Quran". Slate. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
    29. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
    30. ^Bureau, Minhaj Internet. "Urdu Quran اردو قرآن - عرفان القرآن : قرآنِ مجید کا عام فہم اور جدید ترین پہلا آن لائن يونيکوڈ اُردو ترجمہ - Irfan-ul-Quran, Read Listen Search Download & Buy". www.irfan-ul-quran.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    31. ^"MY QURAN PAK". sites.google.com. Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
    32. ^Dey, Amit (7 June 2012). "BENGALI TRANSLATION OF THE QURAN AND THE IMPACT OF PRINT CULTURE ON MUSLIM SOCIETY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY"(PDF). University of Calcutta, Department of History: 8–18. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
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    Title page of a German translation of the Qur'an published in 1775


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